MIŃSK MAZOWIECKI, POLAND—Science & Scholarship in Poland reports that more than 100 shallow burials in a “hastily prepared necropolis” were found in eastern Poland during road improvement work. Based upon coins found in some of the graves, the burials are thought to date to the seventeenth century. Cholera, which is spread through contaminated water and food, spreads easily during war and after natural disasters, and is suspected to be the cause of this epidemic. “We have found only a few artifacts in the graves, while generally there are considerably more in the necropolises from this period—such as clothing accessories, for example studs, buckles and pins,” said contract archaeologist Szymon Lenarczyk. “In this case, everything indicates that the dead were buried in the graves naked or in shrouds. The skeletons were buried without funerary objects.” Some of the graves contained more than one body, and some of the bodies may have been burned before burial in an attempt to prevent the spread of infection. For more, go to “A Parisian Plague.”
CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO—Western Digs reports that a cave in the Chihuahuan Desert has yielded stone points, textiles, an ear of corn, a squash, the partial skeleton of a young child, large human leg bones that had been tied together, and the remains of a scarlet macaw, all estimated to be about 2,000 years old, based upon a lack of pottery and other artifacts usually associated with farmers and traders. “If we confirm the hypothesis [that this burial dates from] the Late Archaic, we could have a site with information about the transition to agricultural, sedentary communities in the region,” said archaeologist Emiliano Gallaga Murrieta of Mexico’s National Institute of Anthropology and History. The human remains were probably first buried somewhere else, and then moved to the cave for reburial. It is not known if the bones represent relatives, but they were placed near each other and surrounded with baskets, textiles, a bag or dress made of deer hide, and a large sea shell. The bird and seashell are not found locally, and suggest that the trade in exotic goods and wildlife began centuries earlier than had been previously thought. Carbon dating of material from the site is underway. For more, go to “Early Parrots in the Southwest.”
ORKNEY, SCOTLAND—The Scotsman reports that a carved stone has been recovered from an eroding cliff face by Nick Card and a team from the Orkney Research Center for Archaeology (ORCA) at the University of the Highlands and Islands, and Historic Environment Scotland. The stone, located on the East Mainland coast, was uncovered by powerful wind and waves and spotted by archaeologist Hugo Anderson-Whymark, who investigated the area after a storm. Closer examination of the stone revealed it to be a weathered Pictish cross slab carved with a dragon or similar beast that probably dates to the eighth century, when the people of Orkney were beginning to convert to Christianity. The reverse side of the stone bears a carving of a beast grasping what may be a staff in its open beak. Only two similar carved stones have ever been found in Orkney. The team is seeking additional funding to investigate the rest of the site. To read in-depth about archaeology on the Orkney Islands, go to “Neolithic Europe's Remote Heart.”
BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA—Wired reports that Mike Toth, an expert in imaging techniques, is working with archaeologists, physicists, and engineers to develop ways to find and read the texts written on the layers of ancient papyri in cartonnage, coffins made for middle-class Egyptians. In the past, researchers dismantled the ancient coffins and funerary masks, and washed the paint, plaster, and gesso off the papyri to look for rare texts in the layers. “Apart from destroying a mummy, washing away is a reckless way to deal with something where the littlest thing can be really interesting,” said Derin McLeod of the University of California, Berkeley's Tebtunis Center. Multi-spectral imaging, X-ray phase contrast, and fluorescence offer new ways to look for signs of ink, and possibly even read the texts. For more, go to “Animal Mummy Coffins of Ancient Egypt.”
ÇANAKKALE PROVINCE, TURKEY—Hürriyet Daily News reports than an inn dating to the Byzantine period has been unearthed behind the western gate of the ancient harbor city of Assos, known for its Temple of Athena and large theater overlooking the Aegean Sea. “The existence of this complex is mentioned in ancient sources but it has never been unearthed,” said Nurettin Arslan of Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University. “Ancient resources from the Byzantine era provide information about the inn but none of them defined this structure and its location.” The team will look for additional sections of the inn, which may include a bakery, kitchens, cisterns, guest rooms, and a chapel. The excavation conducted by Arslan’s team is part of a larger restoration project to make the site more visitor friendly. To read more about archaeology in Turkey, go to “In Search of a Philosopher’s Stone.”
LUTON, ENGLAND—BBC News reports that a man in eastern England was backing out of his driveway when his wheel got stuck in a hole that opened up in the paving stones. At first Simon Marks thought it was a sinkhole, but he could see parts of a ladder, so he used a camera and a selfie stick to get a better look. He found what could be an air raid shelter dating to World War II that had been filled in with dirt and garbage. At the time of the war, the land was an empty plot. “It was so well structured with the concrete roof and the walls, it was quite clear what it was going to be,” Marks said. If found to be structurally sound, the family plans to keep the shelter under the driveway. For more, go to “Archaeology of World War II.”
VANCOUVER, CANADA—ABC News Australia reports that statistical geneticist Ryan Bohlender of the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and his team developed a new computer model to evaluate the possible relationships among the ancestors of modern humans, Neanderthals, and Denisovans. The tool varied estimations of population size and dates for when the populations stopped interbreeding, and accounted for inconsistencies in previous studies of genomes of modern and archaic humans. The analysis suggests that interbreeding occurred both within and outside of Africa, that the early population in Africa was 50 percent larger than had been thought, and that modern humans diverged from the family tree some 440,000 years ago. The study also suggests that the different populations may have interbred less frequently than previously thought, and in similar numbers in Europe and in East Asia. (It had been suggested that interbreeding occurred more frequently in East Asia.) And, according to Bohlender, Melanesians may carry a small amount of DNA from an unidentified, extinct human species. Future computer simulations will add additional populations into the mix to see how they affect the results. For more, go to “A New Human Relative.”
CANTABRIA, SPAIN—Cosmos reports that human hunters may have contributed to the extinction of Panthera spelaea, the Eurasian cave lion, some 14,000 years ago. Marian Cueto of the Universidad de Cantabria and her team examined nine lion claws, or phalanxes, recovered in La Garma, a cave in northern Spain associated with human rituals during the Upper Paleolithic period. They found cut marks and signs of scraping on the bones similar to the ones made by modern hunters when they skin an animal in a way that keeps the claws attached to the pelt. The researchers add that the locations of the bones on the cave floor suggest that the pelt may have been used as a floor covering. For more on the relationship between ancient people and cats, go to “Baby Bobcat,” which was one of ARCHAEOLOGY's Top 10 Discoveries of 2015.
MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN—NPR reports that archaeologist Bettina Arnold of the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and her research team worked with Lakefront Brewery to try to re-create an alcoholic beverage that had been placed in a bronze cauldron and buried in a grave sometime between 400 and 450 B.C. in what is now Germany. The recipe was based upon the research of paleobotanist Manfred Rösch, who analyzed the residues in the Iron Age cauldron. He found evidence of honey, meadowsweet, barley, and mint—ingredients in a type of beverage known as a braggot. The experimental mixture took seven hours to make. It was then left to ferment for two weeks, producing a smooth drink with an herbal, minty taste. “I don’t think people would be interested in purchasing it to drink,” commented Chris Ranson of Lakefront Brewery. To read about another find from the same time period, go to “Tomb of a Highborn Celt,” which was one of ARCHAEOLOGY's Top 10 Discoveries of 2015.