TRONDHEIM, NORWAY—Last year, a metal detectorist discovered a sword from the Viking Age in a field in central Norway. Archaeologists from the Museum of Natural History and Archaeology at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology excavated the site, and found a grave dating to about A.D. 950 that contained the remains of a Viking and his shield, in addition to the inscribed, high-quality sword. Hidden inside the shield boss they found a leather purse that contained several Islamic coins. Norwegian Vikings arrived in Spain in the 800s, where they may have come in contact with Islamic culture, or perhaps the coins were obtained through trade. “We have not managed to find out who owned the sword, but we know that he was a well-traveled man,” archaeologist Ingrid Ystgaard told NRK, as reported by ThorNews. The shield boss also bears combat scars. “The shield boss has a clear cut mark by an ax or a sword. If he died in combat, we do not know,” added Ystgaard. To read about the earliest Norse raids, see "The First Vikings."
WASHINGTON, D.C.—A study of stone tools from Arabia, northeastern Africa, and the Middle East by Jeffrey Rose of the Ronin Institute, and Anthony Marks of Southern Methodist University, begins with the evolution of stone tools from the Nile Valley some 150,000 to 130,000 years ago. That was when hunter-gatherers chipped away the edges of a stone core in a systematic way to produce the single, triangular point characteristic of Nubian tools. It had been thought that the modern human makers of these tools moved rapidly to the Levant, where they invented the points, blades, and scrapers known as Emiran tools, first discovered in a cave near the Sea of Galilee in 1951. “The Emiran is the bridge technology. But where did these guys come from?” Rose asked National Geographic News. Rose and Marks propose that some of the early Nile tool-makers first traveled to Arabia, where their descendants spent tens of thousands of years and developed two new toolkits, whose stone points grew smaller and more elongated over time. Rose and Marks add that after climate changed pushed them into the Levant, these modern-human tool makers learned to strike many blades from a single core. The style of their tools may even have been influenced by local toolmakers, possibly Neanderthals. “Archaeologists have always focused so much on ‘out of Africa and into the Middle East’ that we’ve missed an entire chapter of the human expansion in Arabia,” Rose said. To read more about stone tool technology in Arabia, see "Who Crafted Saudi Arabia's 100,000-Year-Old Tools?"
CIRENCESTER, ENGLAND—A well-preserved Roman tombstone dating between the first and third centuries A.D. has been unearthed in a parking lot in western England, at the site of the Roman town of Corinium. According to Neil Holbrook of Cotswold Archaeology, the inscription on the stone reads: “To the spirit of the departed Bodica [or Bodicaca], wife, lived for 27 years.” Blank space on the piece of carved limestone may have been intended for the use of a spouse or another family member. A skull found near the stone may have belonged to the woman named on the stone. The remains of three children were also uncovered in what may have been a family burial plot. “Perhaps Bodica is a local Gloucestershire girl who’s married an incoming Roman or Gaul from France and has adopted this very Roman way of death,” Holbrook told BBC News. To read about a spectacular Roman-era artifact unearthed in the same town, see "Cirencester's Bronze Cockerel."
PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA—The Luxor Times reports that an examination of the skeletal remains of Senebkay, discovered in Abydos last year by Josef Wegner and a team from the University of Pennsylvania, recorded 18 injuries to his bones, including vertical cuts to his feet, ankles, and lower back. It is thought that the king, whose family ruled from 1650 to 1600 B.C., died in battle between the ages of 35 and 49. The wounds to his ankles and feet suggest that he was on horseback when he was attacked from below at close range, and then knocked to the ground and killed with ax wounds to his cranium. The researchers also say that he was mummified long after death, suggesting that he was killed far away from home, perhaps in battle with the Hyksos, who occupied Lower Egypt at the time. To read in-depth about Abydos from the archives of ARCHAEOLOGY, see "Ancient Abydos."
LUXOR, EGYPT—More than 60 statues of Sekhmet have been found at Amenhotep III’s temple at Kom El-Hitan on Luxor’s west bank. Now Egyptologist Horig Sourouzian has uncovered two more busts of the lioness goddess on the northeastern side of the temple’s pillar halls. One of the statues depicts Sekhmet sitting on a throne; the other, smaller sculpture is of her face. “Some Egyptologists believe that king Amenhotep constructed a large number of statue goddess Sekhmets in an attempt to cure him of a specific disease that he suffered during his reign,” Sourouzian told Ahram Online.
OSLO, NORWAY—Christian Stenseth of the University of Oslo and his team have examined tree-ring records from Europe and compared that information with more than 7,000 historical outbreaks of the Black Death to see if the weather conditions would have supported large populations of black rats to transmit the bacteria-carrying fleas to humans. “For this, you would need warm summers, with not too much precipitation. Dry but not too dry. And we have looked at the broad spectrum of climatic indices, and there is no relationship between the appearance of plague and the weather,” Stenseth told BBC News. The research team thinks that the wet springs and warm summers in Asia, however, may have caused the great gerbil, which also carries plague, to thrive. “We show that wherever there are good conditions for gerbils and fleas in central Asia, some years later the bacteria shows up in harbor cities in Europe and then spreads across the continent,” he said. Now plague bacteria DNA taken from skeletons across Europe is being analyzed. Large amounts of variation in the genetic material would support the idea of different strains coming from Asia rather than a European rat reservoir. For more on the disease, see "Plague Vampire Exorcism."
HEREFORD, ENGLAND—An osteological study of more than 700 sets of human remains excavated from Hereford Cathedral suggests that one of the graves held the remains of a knight. Analysis of the knight’s teeth shows he was likely from Normandy and had moved to Hereford later in life. The skeleton, which has been dated to between A.D. 1100 and 1300, had several fractures to the ribs and right shoulder that are consistent with injuries sustained while jousting. Only some of the wounds had healed; the unhealed wounds had been sustained close to the time of death. The body also had an unusual twisting break in the lower left leg, perhaps inflicted after a hit to the right side of the upper body while on horseback. The hit could have spun the rider, catching the left foot in the stirrup. “Obviously we can never be sure how people came about their wounds, but in this case there is a considerable amount of evidence suggesting this man was involved in some form of violent activity and the locations of his injuries do match quite closely what might be expected from taking part in mock battles. The fact that he was still doing this after he was 45 suggests he must have been very tough,” Andy Boucher of Headland Archaeology Limited told British Archaeology News Resource. For a similar discovery, read "A Knight's Family Crypt Unearthed in Scotland."
LANCASTER, PENNSYLVANIA—In the mortuary complex at Bolivia’s site of Khonkho Wankane, Scott C. Smith of Franklin & Marshall College and Pérez Arias of the University of Pittsburgh unearthed human body parts that may have been defleshed and processed into easy-to-carry pieces. These were “portable ancestors for a mobile population,” Smith told USA Today. In one stone and adobe building, the team discovered nearly 1,000 teeth and small bones that were coated with a thin layer of white plaster, in addition to white-coated pots and tools made of llama bones. White blocks, probably quicklime, were also discovered. Quicklime, which turns to white plaster when exposed to air, is still used to clean skeletons. And an image of a person with defleshed ribs was found carved on a stone pillar outside the mortuary. Researchers think that from the first through fifth centuries A.D. itinerant llama herders used the site to strip flesh and clean the bones of the dead so that they could be carried from place to place. “The dead still played an active and important role in the lives of the living,” Smith explained.To read about another recent discovery made in Bolivia, see "Tiwanaku Drug Paraphernalia Found."
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS—President Obama has added Browns Canyon in central Colorado to the list of protected National Monuments. “Browns Canyon harbors a wealth of scientifically significant geological, ecological, riparian, cultural, and historic resources, and is an important area for studies of paleoecology, mineralogy, archaeology, and climate change,” the president said in a statement reported by The Environment News Service. Artifacts estimated to be more than 10,000 years old have been found in the Browns Canyon area. Eighteen archaeological sites have been found in the few areas that have been surveyed, including five prehistoric sites eligible for the National Register of Historic Places.
NAIROBI, KENYA—A second look at a 22,000-year-old skull fragment from the collections at the National Museums of Kenya suggests that humans were more diverse than previously thought. “It looks like nothing else, and so it shows that original diversity that we’ve since lost,” Christian Tryon of Harvard University’s Peabody Museum told Live Science. The skull, discovered in the 1970s at rock shelters at Lukenya Hill, resembles that of a modern human, but its dimensions are different from finds of the same age in Africa and Europe. The skull is also thickened, perhaps from damage, nutritional stress, or a highly active childhood. Artifacts from the site include 46,000-year-old ostrich eggshells that were used to make beads, and tiny stone blades.
AMERSFOORT, NETHERLANDS—CT scans and endoscopy of a 1,000-year-old Buddha statue from China have revealed a mummified body thought to belong to the Buddhist master Liuquan of the Chinese Meditation School. The statue, housed at the Drents Museum in the Netherlands, was examined at the Meander Medical Center. Discovery News reports that the body’s organs had been removed from the abdominal cavity and replaced with an unidentified material and paper printed with Chinese characters. Researchers at the Drents Museum speculate that the statue may represent a rare case of "self-mummification," in which monks would follow a special diet that turned them into "living skeletons" and would then be placed into tombs only slightly larger than themselves where they would eventually die. To read about tattoos on a more ancient mummy from China, see "Tarim Basin Mummy."
EXETER, ENGLAND—An international project funded by the European Research Council will search the Amazon River Basin for clues to the forest’s inhabitants for the past 3,000 years. Jose Iriarte of the University of Exeter says that recent work has shown that the Amazon was populated with more complex societies than scientists had thought the forest could support. Dark earth, cultivated by humans to create raised agricultural fields, and geoglyphs made up of large ditches, can be spotted from the air by drones carrying Lidar technology, which uses lasers to map the topography of the ground. “We are hoping that with Lidar we are going to be able to discover all of these archaeological features like mounts, ditches, trail ways and so forth, so that when you put them together you can really have an idea of the regional archaeological landscape,” Iriarte told Deutsche Welle. The data will also help scientists see how humans have changed the forest. “This has implications for conservation because maybe the very biodiversity that we want to preserve today is not only the result of millions of years of natural processes, but also have a human footprint,” he said. To read more about the use of Lidar in New World archaeology, see "Lasers in the Jungle."