A publication of the Archaeological Institute of America
From the Trenches
By HYUNG-EUN KIM
Monday, August 14, 2017
At the palace of Wolseong in Gyeongju, several hundred miles south of Seoul, archaeologists have found a group of sixth-century clay figures dating to the Silla dynasty (57 B.C.–A.D. 935). The dolls, which measure between one and eight inches tall, include one wearing a turban and caftan believed to represent a Sogdian, a member of an ancient Iranian civilization. The Silla are known to have had active exchanges with Central Asia, Europe, and the Middle East, but few clay dolls resembling people from the Middle East have previously been found. Other clay figures found at Wolseong include one riding a horse, a man with exaggerated male genitals, and several dancers in lively, dynamic postures.
By MALIN GRUNBERG BANYASZ
Monday, August 14, 2017
Any visitor today to the site of Los Adaes, in northwest Louisiana, will take in a landscape that was the easternmost point of Spanish expansion in the southwest. It was the location of a Spanish mission and presidio, constructed in 1721 and occupied until 1773, in a high, defensible position. A previous Los Adaes mission had been built in 1717, a short distance away, but was abandoned because of initially poor relations with the Caddo Indians. According to archaeologist George Avery of Stephen F. Austin State University in Texas, the Los Adaes mission, and others like it, was regarded as a less expensive alternative to military occupation. The Spaniards’ intention was to halt French incursions into the region and to prevent the French from using the Mississippi River as a means to trade with Mexico. They also were supposed to convert the Caddo to Catholicism. The Los Adaes mission, however, situated on the frontier and far from both Spain and Mexico, took on a unique character. According to archaeologist Pete Gregory of Northwestern State University, Los Adaes became a place of intense cultural exchange among the Spanish, the French, and the Caddo. “It’s what we call ‘creolization’ here in Louisiana,” he says. The archaeological record, with its robust mixture of ceramics from all three cultures, bears this out. Ultimately, these people weren’t supposed to get along, “but,” says Gregory, “they did.”
Los Adaes remained largely undisturbed from the time it was abandoned in 1773 until Gregory conducted archaeological investigations at the presidio in 1962. His initial aim was to confirm that the site was indeed Los Adaes. He uncovered a large quantity of French and Spanish ceramics, with the latter having been made in Pueblo, Mexico. Asian porcelain, which had arrived by way of Acapulco, was also discovered and reflected the robust trade route that reached from Mexico all the way to Los Adaes. More than 70 percent of all ceramics found across the site are Caddo in origin. The mission itself sits partially on private land and has not been excavated. In 2014, geophysical survey of the mission site was conducted. While only a small percentage of Los Adaes has been excavated, a 1767 map by cartographer Joseph de Urrutia, once thought to have been created for planning purposes, has been discovered by archeologists to be a reliable rendering of the settlement.
WHILE YOU'RE THERE
The visitor center is open on Wednesday through Saturday, noon to four, and is a favorite field trip for Texas schoolchildren, since Los Adaes was the colonial capital of Texas. Replicas of many of the excavated artifacts of colonial frontier life are on display, including French, Spanish, and Caddo ceramics, along with a detailed timeline of Los Adaes history. In addition, tour guides are available and walking trails with markers wind throughout the site.
By ERIC A. POWELL
Monday, August 14, 2017
Carved into the chalk of a hillside in southern England, the Uffington White Horse is utterly unique. Stretching 360 feet from head to tail, it is the only prehistoric geoglyph—a large-scale design created using elements of the natural landscape—known in Europe. “There’s just nothing like it,” says University of Southampton archaeologist Joshua Pollard, who points to the Nazca lines in Peru as the closest parallel. Pollard says that because the site is so anomalous, researchers have resisted grappling with its distinct nature. As a consequence, few new interpretations of the site have been advanced since the early twentieth century. “Archaeologists are tripped up by things that are unique,” says Pollard, “and the White Horse has thrown us.” But now, after making a close study of the site and its relationship to the landscape around it, Pollard has developed a theory that connects the Uffington Horse with an ancient mythological tradition.
Stories about the White Horse have been recorded since medieval times. One popular legend had it being carved in celebration of an Anglo-Saxon victory over a Viking army in A.D. 875. But excavations in the 1990s yielded dates that showed it was created much earlier, during the Late Bronze Age or the Iron Age, sometime between 1380 and 550 B.C. Most archaeologists have thought that the site was probably a symbol that signaled a prehistoric group’s ownership of the land—their attempt at creating a landmark that was meant to impress outsiders. But Pollard did not find that idea wholly persuasive. “It doesn’t really work that way,” he says. “For one, the way it’s positioned makes it difficult to see the whole geoglyph from the surrounding landscape.” Pollard found that there are other hillside locations in the immediate vicinity that are much more visible, and where creating a totemic image meant to symbolize a group’s identity would have made more sense.
Pollard usually works on sites dating to the Neolithic, a period when people erected large monuments, such as Stonehenge, that were often aligned with astronomical events. That experience led him to wonder if the Uffington Horse could have been designed along similar lines, and he investigated how the geoglyph was positioned relative to celestial bodies. He found that when observed from a hill opposite, in midwinter, the sun rises behind the horse, and as the day progresses, seems to gain on the horse and finally pass it. From the same vantage point, at all times of the year, the horse appears to be galloping along the ridge in a westerly direction, toward the sunset.
Both the form and the setting of the site led Pollard to conclude that the White Horse was originally created as a depiction of a “solar horse,” a creature found in the mythology of many ancient Indo-European cultures. These people believed that the sun either rode a horse or was drawn by one in a chariot across the sky. Depictions of horses drawing this so-called solar chariot have been unearthed in Scandinavia, and Celtic coins often show horses associated with the sun. “The White Horse is depicted as a horse in motion, and the people who created it must have thought that it was responsible for the sun’s movement across the sky,” says Pollard. He posits that the geoglyph was not a static symbol, but an animated creature on the landscape, one that connected ancient Britons with the sun. “I’ve always wondered why it seems the White Horse was meant to be seen from the sky,” says Alistair Barclay of Wessex Archaeology, who was a member of the team that worked at the site in the 1990s. “I think this explanation—that it is tied to the sun—makes sense.”
Over time, though its original purpose was lost, local people maintained a connection with the White Horse that ensured its continued existence. “If it weren’t maintained, the White Horse would be overgrown and disappear in 20 years,” says Andrew Foley, a ranger with the National Trust, which oversees the site. Historical records indicate the local community has long held regular festivals devoted to maintaining the site. In 1854, some 30,000 people attended. Now, each summer, a few hundred local volunteers weed the White Horse and then crush fresh chalk on top of it so that it keeps the same brilliant white appearance it has had for 3,000 years. The site, as it must have throughout millennia, continues to be meaningful to the people around it.
A prehistoric canoe in Louisiana, the Spanish cat-fur trade, an Egyptian’s wooden toe, and escaping Crusader-style