A publication of the Archaeological Institute of America
JUNEAU, ALASKA—The Anchorage Daily News reports that 25 items, including baskets woven of spruce root, ceremonial paddles, headdresses, and a wooden mask have been returned to the village of Kake, which is located in southeastern Alaska. The objects, taken from the village in the early twentieth century, were found at Oregon’s George Fox University by Tlingit researcher Frank Hughes, a Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act coordinator, and Lincoln Bean, vice chairman for the Organized Village of Kake. Most of the items are thought to have been taken by Quakers who built a mission in the village of Kake in 1891 and left when the building was handed over to the Kake Memorial Presbyterian Church in 1912. To read about a geophysical survey that identified the location of a Tlingit fort in Sitka, go to "Around the World: Alaska."
YANGSHAO, CHINA—According to a Xinhua report, the foundations of a dwelling estimated to be 5,000 years old have been uncovered in central China’s Yellow River basin. Excavations revealed that the building had rammed earth walls and covered about 1,400 square-feet. Four trenches and a jade tomahawk were also unearthed. Li Shiwei of the Henan Provincial Institute of Cultural Heritage and Archaeology said that the defensive structures suggest that a large population belonging to the Yangshao Culture lived at the site. To read about bronze Buddha figurines found in central China's Shaanxi Province, go to "Made in China."
YORKSHIRE, ENGLAND—The Yorkshire Post reports that a team of archaeologists led by John Buglass has found a cellar, glazed roof tiles, evidence of iron smelting, pottery, and jet beads possibly from a rosary in North York Moors National Park at the site of a medieval farm run by Cistercian monks associated with nearby Rievaulx Abbey. The abbey, founded in 1132, was closed during the dissolution of the monasteries under King Henry VIII in 1539. “Whilst it’s not surprising that we found evidence of medieval farming, the prestige and range of the uncovered artifacts points to this being a place of high economic importance,” said Miles Johnson of the National Park Authority. The monks grazed large flocks of sheep on the moors, which stimulated the rapid growth of the wool trade, and diverted the flow of the River Rye to accommodate development, he added. To read about artifacts recovered from Greyfriars, a Franciscan friary in Oxford that Henry VIII also closed, go to "Tales Out of School."
YONEZAWA, JAPAN—The Asahi Shimbun reports that a digital image of a woman who lived some 1,600 years ago has been created by a team made up of researchers from Tohoku University, the Yonezawa education board, and other research institutes. The scientists employed information collected from the woman’s remains, which were found in 1982 on the island of Honshu in one of the 200 graves in the Totsukayama burial mound group. Dubbed “Himiko of Okitama,” she had been buried with a long-tooth comb and a small knife. Analysis of her well-preserved genome indicates that she descended from people who migrated to the island from China during the Yayoi Pottery Culture Period, between 1000 B.C. and A.D. 250, and that she is an ancestor of the modern population of Japan. Her DNA was also used to determine her hair color and skin color in the digital image. Study of her bones was used to recreate her facial features. The study also suggests she stood about four feet, nine inches tall, and was about 40 years old when she died. Toshihiko Suzuki of Tohoku University added that the pattern of wear on the woman’s teeth suggests that she clenched them, resulting in a distorted jaw that likely affected her ability to chew. For more on the populations from which modern Japanese people descended, go to "Japan's Genetic History."
CHIAPAS, MEXICO—According to a statement released by Mexico’s National Institute of Anthropology and History, over the past decade, a collection of 700-year-old stucco sculptures has been unearthed at the Maya site of Toniná, which is located in southern Mexico. Many of the sculptures depict the human face, according to archaeologist Juan Yadeun Angulo. “Here the human body is part of the decoration of the buildings,” he explained. One of the masks, found at the Temple of the Sun, has a shark tooth but lacks a lower jaw, thus indicating that the being is dead. This sculpture is thought to represent the lord of the underworld. Fragments of another sculpture are thought to represent Tlaloc, a god worshipped in central Mexico’s city of Teotihuacan. Others represent rulers; scenes from the sacred narrative, the Popol Vuh; and some may have been used as mannequins to fashion jade masks. “These faces, these portraits, look at us from the past, their gaze transports us to the royal court of the ancient and powerful Mayan kingdom of Po’o,” Angulo concluded. To read about a Maya creation story recorded in the Popol Vuh, go to "Piecing Together Maya Creation Stories."
BISCAY, SPAIN—According to a statement released by the University of the Basque Country, analysis of a 17,000-year-old canid humerus unearthed in northern Spain’s Erralla Cave in 1985 has revealed that it belonged to Canis lupus familiaris, or a domesticated dog. Conchi de la Rúa and her colleagues said that the dog shares mitochondrial DNA, which is passed through the maternal line, with other known dogs that lived in Europe during the Magdalenian period of the Upper Paleolithic. Wolf domestication may have occurred earlier in western Europe than previously thought, de la Rúa added. Perhaps Paleolithic hunter-gatherers came into contact with wolves and other animals in areas of glacial refuge during the Last Glacial Maximum some 22,000 years ago, she surmised. Read the original scholarly article about this research in Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. To read about evidence for human consumption of dogs as far back as 7,200 years ago, go to "World Roundup: Spain."
BERGEN, NORWAY—According to a statement released by the University of Bergen, a team of researchers led by Francesco d’Errico has investigated possible used for 23 bone tools discovered in South Africa’s Sibudu rock shelter. The tools, which all have a similar shape, were found in sediment layers dated to between 80,000 and 60,000 years ago. It had been previously thought that such bone tools were used for hunting or to process hides, but d’Errico and his colleagues suggest that these double-beveled tools were used to process plants. First, they examined the wear on the ancient tools under a high-resolution microscope, and then compared what they found to marks on experimental replica tools. Most of the tools, they concluded, had probably been used to collect tree bark for use as medicine and perhaps to dig in humus-rich soil where roots and tubers grew. D’Errico notes that these particular tools have not been found at other sites, and likely reflect a local adaptation to the environment. Read the original scholarly article about this research in Scientific Reports. To read about bone tools uncovered in a Moroccan cave that date to between 120,000 and 90,000 years ago, go to "Earliest Leatherworkers," one of ARCHAEOLOGY's Top 10 Discoveries of 2021.
ROME, ITALY—Excavation of the ancient sewer system at the Colosseum with robots has discovered the pits of figs, grapes, cherries, blackberries, and nut shells, according to a BBC News report. Alfonsina Russo of the Colosseum Archaeological Park said that the foodstuffs may have been eaten while Roman spectators watched gladiator battles some 2,000 years ago. The bones of bears and big cats, which may have been used during hunting games in which the animals were forced to fight each other and the gladiators, were also found, along with the bones of dogs. Finally, some 50 bronze coins dated from about A.D. 250 to 450, and a second-century A.D. silver coin commemorating 10 years of the reign of the emperor Marcus Aurelius, were also recovered. To read about equipment gladiators used to fight in the Roman arena, go to "Weapons of the Ancient World: Gladiator Weapons."
BASEL, SWITZERLAND—Swissinfo reports that the remains of a woman who was buried wearing a golden brooch, 160 pearls, an amber pendant, and a belt with an iron buckle and silver-inlaid tongue have been found in a seventh-century A.D. cemetery in northwestern Switzerland. The excavation was prompted by local construction work. “It appears to be a hotspot, a special place where particularly wealthy people were buried,” said Basel canton archaeologist Guido Lassau. Last summer, researchers working at the site uncovered the remains of a man who had suffered a sword injury to the head. To read about an iron folding chair discovered in a seventh-century A.D. woman's grave in central Germany, go to "Take a Seat."
RUTLAND, ENGLAND—According to a report in The Guardian, John Thomas of the University of Leicester and his colleagues returned to a Roman villa complex in the East Midlands and uncovered the remains of a timber barn that had been converted into a multistory stone dwelling in the third or fourth century A.D. One end of the remodeled structure featured a Roman-style bath, while the other is thought to have continued as a space dedicated to agricultural or craft work. The researchers also investigated an extension on the main building in the villa complex where a mosaic depicting scenes from the Iliad was uncovered last year. The extension is thought to have served as a dining room, or triclinium. The recent work unearthed fragments of polished marble, stone columns, and painted wall plaster, in addition to corridors with mosaic floors in geometric designs that led to the triclinium. To read about a mid-fifth century A.D. mosaic uncovered at a Roman villa in Gloucestershire, go to "After the Fall."
CAIRO, EGYPT—According to an Ahram Online report, poorly preserved mummies equipped with golden tongues have been discovered in the Quweisna necropolis, which is located in northern Egypt’s central Nile Delta, by a team of Egyptian archaeologists. Pottery, golden sheets shaped as scarabs and lotus flowers, amulets, scarabs, and vessels made of stone were also uncovered, said Mustafa Waziri of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities. Some of the human remains had also been covered with golden sheets, or placed in wooden coffins bearing traces of copper, he added. This section of the Quweisna necropolis was constructed with mudbricks and consists of a vaulted main hall with three vaulted burial chambers, and a burial shaft with two side chambers made of mudbricks, explained Ayman Ashmawi of the Egyptian Antiquities Sector. “Early studies of the burials, the mummies, and the funerary collection found indicate that this necropolis was used during three different periods: the late ancient Egyptian, the Ptolemaic, and part of the Roman period,” Ashmawi said. To read about mummies with tongue-shaped gold amulets placed in their mouths, go to "Around the World: Egypt."