Humans lived at this site over 10,000 years ago. In addition, the Spanish were the first Europeans to arrive in the 16th century, and they introduced horses to the area. There were bloody conflicts between Mescalero Apaches and Buffalo Soldiers near Pine Springs Camp, which is the site of archaeological research, the passing of the Butterfield Overland Mail, the coming of ranchers, and finally, the making of a national park. Today, visitors can see Frijole and Williams Ranches, and the ruins of the Pinery Station. The famous "El Capitan" is also located in Gaudalupe Mountains National Park although a permit is needed to climb the peak.