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Archaeological Headlines By JESSICA E. SARACENI
Thursday, June 25

Burned Bronze Age Settlement Excavated

PETERBOROUGH, ENGLAND—Archaeologists are returning to excavate at Must Farm, a 3,000-year-old Bronze Age site protected by a ring of wooden posts that was destroyed by fire. “We think those living in the settlement were forced to leave everything behind when it caught on fire,” Cambridgeshire County Council archaeologist Kasia Gdaniec told Culture24. Among the previous discoveries at the site were a charred pot filled with food and a partially charred spoon, as well as glass beads and nine log boats. “We anticipate that more of the timber structure, a range of organic remains and fishing equipment and the whole gamut of personal, work and settlement paraphernalia will be found," said Gdaniec. To read about another Bronze Age site, go to "Wolf Rites of Winter."

Ancient Greek Zombies Discovered

PASSO MARINARO, SICILY—Research conducted by archaeologist Carrie Sulosky Weaver of the University of Pittsburgh has shown that the zombie craze is not a new phenomenon, but one with evidence going back more than 2,000 years. According to a report on her work in LiveScience, Sulosky Weaver studied two burials from a necropolis in a Greek settlement on the island of Sicily that she considered “peculiar” because they hold what she believes to be the remains of “revenants,” a zombie-like figure. The ancient Greeks believed that certain dead bodies could reanimate, and that to keep them in their graves, they had to be ritually killed or trapped inside in some way, such as pinning the body down with amphora fragments or large stones, as was done at Passo Marinaro. To read more about another type of ancient undead, go to "Plague Vampire Exorcism."

Excavation of the Antikythera Shipwreck will Continue

WOOD'S HOLE, MASSACHUSSETS—Excavation of the Antikythera shipwreck will continue for another five years, reports LiveScience. First discovered by sponge divers off the coast of a small Greek island more than a century ago, the ship dates to the first century B.C. and is most famous for carrying the bronze Antikythera mechanism, the ancient world's most sophisticated astrological instrument. The project, a collaboration between the Greek government and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, has so far resulted in a 3-D map of the seafloor around the wreck as well as the discovery of a number of artifacts, including a lead anchor and an oversize bronze spear that may have belonged to a statue. The team also discovered the site actually consists of two separate remains separated by more than 300 feet, indicating the ship either broke in half when it sank or that two distinct shipwrecks rest on the seafloor. To read about a modern recreation of the astrological device discovered at the site, go to "Artifact: Antikythera Mechanism." 

Saxon Man's Face Reconstructed

DUNDEE, SCOTLAND—Forensic experts at the University of Dundee have reconstructed the face of a Saxon man whose skeleton was unearthed at a previously unknown church discovered on the grounds of Lincoln Castle, which was built by William the Conqueror. Radiocarbon dating of the remains showed the man died sometime between A.D. 1035 and 1070, or just before the Norman Conquest. His skeleton, which showed a range of significant degenerative bone diseases suggestive of a strenuous life, was one of eight discovered at the site, and was unusually well preserved. “His grave lay slightly under an important sarcophagus burial, which had resulted in excellent preservation of his skull [that made] it the best candidate among the skeletons for facial reconstruction,” said forensic artist Caroline Erolin in a University of Dundee press release. Osteological examination of the remains shows the man was between 36 and 45 years old when he died, and isotope analysis of his bones and teeth indicate that he was born and bred in eastern England. To read about the excavation of an early Anglo-Saxon site, go to "The Kings of Kent."  

Wednesday, June 24

Teens Attempt to Collect Auschwitz Artifacts

CAMBRIDGE, ENGLAND—Polish police arrested two British teenagers on a school trip to Auschwitz for picking up artifacts from the ground. The 17-year-old boys were spotted in an area where the prisoners’ personal items had been stockpiled in the Nazi-run death camp, where an estimated 1.5 million people, mostly European Jews, were killed during World War II. The police found the boys with a fragment of a razor, part of a spoon, a hair clipper, buttons, and pieces of glass. The Mirror reports that the school said the teens had “picked up the items without thinking.” The boys were fined and given a year’s probation, suspended for three years. To read more about how researchers study this period, go to "The Archaeology of World War II."

7,000-Year-Old Tool Workshop Found in Bulgaria

KAMENOVO, BULGARIA—Archaeologists from the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, the Razgrad Regional Museum of History, and the Ruse Regional Museum of History unearthed a workshop used for making flint tools dating to around 4800 B.C. while looking for a necropolis at the Chalcolithic site near Kamenovo in northeast Bulgaria. Archaeology in Bulgaria reports that pieces of flint, in addition to unfinished and completed tools, were found, along with fragments of pottery, in a layer of black sediment on clay-coated ground. This huge workshop is thought to have produced high-status tools found in other archaeological sites in Bulgaria. To read about a spectacular discovery from a later period in Bulgaria, go to "Thracian Treasure Chest."

Artifacts Possibly From Famed Swiss Battle Found

ZUG, SWITZERLAND—The Local reports that coins, knives, a knife scabbard, arrows, and a spur that may have been left behind during the Battle of Morgarten have been found in the Agëri Valley of central Switzerland. The victory of the Swiss Confederacy over Austrian troops at the Battle of Morgarten in 1315 paved the way for Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire. The 12 silver coins date from 1275 to the beginning of the fourteenth century. These are the first archaeological artifacts to be found that may have come from the battle. “The objects are so exciting my heart beats faster,” said Stefan Hochuli, Zug cantonal archaeologist. To read more about battlefield archaeology, go to "The Fight for Ancient Sicily." 

Roman Ship Carrying Roof Tiles Discovered Near Sardinia

SARDINIA, ITALY—A ship that sank some 2,000 years ago while carrying a cargo of terracotta roof tiles has been discovered in deep water off the coast of Sardinia by a specialized diving unit of the Italian police. The tiles, which are still packed into ship’s hold, had probably been made in Rome and were headed to a villa for a senior Roman official or a wealthy merchant. “Given the location of the discovery, archaeologists believe that the vessel was destined for Spain or the west coast of Sardinia,” reads an official statement from the Polizia di Stato, reported in The Telegraph. The weight of the tiles may have contributed to the sinking of the vessel. “The cargo is very well preserved and has enormous value to scholars. We’re really pleased about this discovery,” commented Rubens D’Oriano of Sardinia’s archaeological department. To read about more underwater discoveries, go to "History's 10 Greatest Wrecks."

Tuesday, June 23

Farmer Unearthed 2,500-Year-Old Gold Bracelets in Poland

KROSNO, POLAND—A farmer in southeastern Poland unearthed three gold bracelets tied with golden wire that are thought to date to between 1600 and 400 B.C. “We will study the place of discovery because we want to determine whether it was a discovery of a treasure, or perhaps remains of a burial ground,” Jan Gancarski, director of the Subcarpathian Museum in Krosno, told Science & Scholarship in Poland. Gancarski thinks that “the objects probably originated from behind the Carpathians. At the time, the Carpathian foothills were inhabited by people who came here from behind the Carpathians.” 

13,000-Year-Old Footprints Found on Calvert Island

VICTORIA, CANADA—Fossilized footprints discovered below the current shoreline of an island in British Columbia may be the oldest in North America. The prints, thought to have been made by a man, a woman, and a child some 13,000 years ago, were discovered on Calvert Island last year near the remains of an ancient campfire. “We figure that at some point people were hanging out around this fire. They left their footprints in the grey clay and then they were subsequently filled by this black sand, which essentially preserved the footprints,” archaeologist Duncan McLaren of the University of Victoria told the National Post. For more on archaeology in British Columbia, go to "The Edible Seascape."

Scarlet Macaws and the Growth of Pueblo Hierarchies

NEW YORK, NEW YORK—New radiocarbon dates for Mesoamerican parrots unearthed in the late nineteenth century in the American Southwest suggest that the birds were highly prized by the pueblo’s political elites in the early tenth century, at least 150 years earlier than previously thought. Most of the skeletal remains of scarlet macaws found in Chaco Canyon’s Pueblo Bonito predate the Chaco florescence, an era of rapid architectural expansion beginning around A.D. 1040. “By directly dating the macaws, we have demonstrated the existence of long-distance networks throughout much of this settlement’s history. Our findings suggest that rather than the acquisition of macaws being a side effect of the rise of Chacoan society, there was a causal relationship. The ability to access these trade networks and the ritual power associated with macaws and their feathers may have been important to forming these hierarchies in the first place,” Adam Watson off the American Museum of Natural History said in a press release. To read more about Chaco, go to "Who Were the Anasazi?"