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Archaeological Headlines By JESSICA E. SARACENI
Wednesday, June 07

Human Tooth Recovered From Civil War Submarine

CLEMSON, SOUTH CAROLINA—The Post and Courier reports that a human tooth was recovered from a concretion in a crank handle on the Confederate submarine H.L. Hunley. Named for her inventor, the 40-foot submarine was lost in Charleston Bay on February 17, 1864, after it rammed a Union blockade ship with a black powder charge. The vessel was discovered in 1995 and raised from the bottom in 2000. The remains of the eight sailors who manned the iron vessel were removed by conservators at Clemson University’s Warren Lasch Conservation Center and reburied in 2004. The tooth was found at crank handle position Number 3, where crewman Frank Collins sat. Archaeologist Michael Scafuri thinks the tooth was lost after Collins died. Bits of cloth and a loose metal sleeve have also been found at some of the crank positions. The coverings may have been intended to reduce blistering and chaffing of the sailors’ hands. To read more about this ship and another Civil War ship, go to “History's Greatest Wrecks: USS Monitor and H.L. Hunley.”

300,000-Year-Old Fossils Resemble Homo sapiens

LEIPZIG, GERMANY—The Guardian reports that hominin remains resembling Homo sapiens have been discovered at a site known as Jebel Irhoud in Morocco and dated to 300,000 years ago, making them 100,000 years older than the oldest known Homo sapiens remains from East Africa. The fossils were found in a limestone cave whose roof had been damaged by mining operations, among flint tools, gazelle bones, and lumps of charcoal. The fossils include a partial skull, a jawbone, teeth, and limb bones from three adults, a juvenile, and a child of about eight years old. The lower jaw is similar to that of modern humans, but larger, and the braincase is more elongated. “The face of the specimen we found is the face of someone you could meet on the tube in London,” said Jean-Jacques Hublin of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. The researchers also note that the tools had been made with flint obtained about 30 miles to the south, and had been resharpened several times. They think the hominins may have traveled to the area to hunt gazelles, and carried their tools with them. For more, go to “Early Man Cave.”

Open-Air Neanderthal Site Discovered in Israel

TEL AVIV, ISRAEL—According to a report in The Times of Israel, a Neanderthal upper molar and Neanderthal lower limb bones have been found at a 60,000-year-old open-air site in northern Israel by an international team of scientists led by Ella Been of Ono Academic College and Erella Hovers of Hebrew University. The lower limb bones were found in a layer that also contained flint tools, animal bones, marine shells, pigments, and deer antlers. It had been previously thought that Neanderthals lived primarily in caves, since that is where their remains are usually recovered. But the study suggests that Neanderthals repeatedly visited the open-air site, known as Ein Qashish, and thus had adapted to living in diverse environments by the time Homo sapiens arrived in the Near East. For more, go to “A Traditional Neanderthal Home.”

Tuesday, June 06

Adolescents’ Cemetery Unearthed in Amarna

CARBONDALE, ILLINOIS—According to a report in The Guardian, a team of researchers led by Gretchen Dabbs of Southern Illinois University examined the skeletons of 105 individuals whose remains were recovered from the North Tombs Cemetery at Amarna, the short-lived city built by the so-called heretic pharaoh Akhenaten, who died in 1332 B.C. The entire cemetery, which is located near an ancient stone quarry, could contain thousands of burials. The analysis revealed that more than 90 percent of the deceased in the sample had been between the ages of seven and 25, with most under the age of 15. Adolescents usually experience robust health, but the majority of the teens in the sample showed signs of traumatic injuries and degenerative conditions associated with heavy workloads. The researchers also note that the young people may not been buried by their families, since the graves lacked grave goods, and multiple bodies had been stacked in many of them. The young workers may have been the children of slaves, or captured for the purpose of building the pharaoh’s city. For more, go to “In Search of History's Greatest Rulers: Nefertiti, Great Royal Wife and Queen of Egypt.”

Paleocoastal Deposits Discovered on Santa Rosa Island

SANTA ROSA ISLAND, CALIFORNIA—The Ventura County Star reports that artifacts estimated to be between 8,000 and 13,000 years old have been uncovered in Channel Islands National Park. The site, found under a 150-year-old ranch house that has been lifted up off the ground in order to install a new foundation, has yielded a Channel Islands barbed point and a crescent, both of which are thought to have been used by ancestors of the Chumash people to hunt and fish. “Usually, when we find the two of them together, the site is at least 10,000 years old and could be 12,000 years old or older,” said Jon Erlandson of the University of Oregon. For more on early occupants of the West Coast, go to “Coast over Corridor.”

3,000-Year-Old Copper Mask Found in Argentina

BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA—A 3,000-year-old mask has been discovered in an ancient cemetery in northwestern Argentina, according to a report in Live Science. The mask rested on a pile of the bones of an estimated 14 people that was exposed in the southern Andes during the rainy season. Made of a piece of rectangular-shaped copper measuring about seven inches long and six inches wide, the mask has holes marking the positions of eyes, nose, and mouth. Small openings at the edges of the mask may have been used to fasten it to a person’s face or to another object. A copper pendant and a stone bead were also found nearby in the burial of a single child. The researchers, led by M. Cristina Scattolin of the Juan B. Ambrosetti Museum of Ethnography, said that deposits of copper have been found within 44 miles of the burial site, which suggests that the copper items could have been produced locally. It had been thought that metalworking in South America at this time was a skill limited to people living in Peru. To read about a mask discovered in a different part of the world, go to “Mask Metamorphosis.”

Monday, June 05

Underground City Discovered in Turkey

KAYSERI, TURKEY—An ancient underground city consisting of 52 chambers has been discovered in central Turkey, according to a report in the Daily Sabah. Local people who found a cave at the site informed the Kayseri Metropolitan Municipality, Obruk Cave Research Staff, and Kayseri’s Foundation for the Protection and Promotion of the Environment and Cultural Heritage (ÇEKÜL). Further investigation of the area revealed the network of chambers, named Belağasi Underground City, which stretches out horizontally and measures more than 260 feet long. Osman Özsoy of ÇEKÜL said the site is thought to have been expanded as the population increased, and could be the first underground city found in Turkey to have more than 50 chambers. Above ground, the team found traces of a church and other structures. For more on archaeology in Turkey, go to “Zeugma After the Flood.”

Nineteenth-Century Schoolhouse Found in Rural Australia

GOOGONG, AUSTRALIA—A late nineteenth-century schoolhouse has been found in southeastern Australia, according to a report in The Age. Few historic records of the schoolhouse survive, but scholars know the structure was built in the 1880s on private land, where it operated for twenty to thirty years. So far, the team of archaeologists and students from Navin Officer Heritage Consultants and Australian National University has recovered slate pencils and stone walls. Archaeologist Duncan Wright of Australian National University explained that the project could offer clues to what rural life was like in the area. The project will continue with university and primary school student involvement ahead of the development of the site. For more on archaeology in Australia, go to “Death by Boomerang.”

Cannon Recovered Off the Coast of Rhode Island

PROVIDENCE, RHODE ISLAND—According to a report by the Associated Press, a cannon has been recovered from a shipwreck believed to be the USS Revenge, a schooner commanded by Oliver Hazard Perry that sank in 1811 after it struck a reef off the coast of Rhode Island. Perry, known as the Hero of Lake Erie, is remembered for his decisive victory over the British navy during the War of 1812. The cannon will be desalinated and conserved at the Washington Navy Yard. Underwater archaeologist George Schwarz of the Naval History and Heritage Command said foundry marks on the cannon could help scholars identify the shipwreck. “There aren’t any other U.S. Navy vessels lost, as far as we know, right in this area, and there aren’t too many other armed vessels, as far as we know, lost here,” he explained. For more on underwater archaeology, go to “Shipwreck Alley.”

Ancient Temple Discovered in Southwest China

CHENGDU, CHINA—Xinhua News Agency reports that archaeologists from the Chengdu Cultural Relic Research Institute have found the site of a famous temple dating from the Eastern Jin Dynasty (317‒420) to the Southern Song Dynasty (1127‒1279), in downtown Chengdu. The building, which could help scholars trace the spread of Buddhism in China, is said to have been named Fugan, or “perceive the blessing,” Temple after a Tang Dynasty (618‒907) monk prayed for rain outside the structure during a drought. “We have only excavated a part of the temple’s area, but already have a glimpse of its past glory,” said team leader Yi Li. So far, the excavators have uncovered the temple’s foundation and traces of the surrounding buildings, wells, roads, and ditches. More than 1,000 tablet fragments inscribed with Buddhist scriptures, more than 500 pieces of sculpture, and inscribed glazed tiles have been found, in addition to some 80 tombs, which date from 1600 to 256 B.C. Damaged by war, Fugan Temple is said to have fallen out of use in the thirteenth century. For more, go to “Buddhism, in the Beginning.”