DAVIS, CALIFORNIA—Live Science reports that evolutionary biologist Ivan Juric of the University of California, Davis, and his colleagues want to know why modern humans carry so few Neanderthal genes. A large population of modern humans and a small Neanderthal population are thought to have interbred thousands of years ago, but very little Neanderthal DNA has survived in the modern human genome. It had been suggested that many of the offspring of Neanderthals and modern humans failed to thrive, or were infertile. Juric’s team developed a computer model to simulate the effects of natural selection on the distance between segments of Neanderthal DNA and modern human genes, since less Neanderthal DNA has been found in regions close to modern human genes than in the inactive areas between genes. The results of the simulation suggests that Neanderthal gene variants are being slowly removed by natural selection. Now Juric wants to know which gene variants contributed by extinct human relatives have been deleted from the modern human genome. “Once we know more about the genes involved, we can ask what those genes do and what traits they are involved with in modern humans,” he said. “Then, we might be able to make some guesses about the traits of those early human-Neanderthal hybrids.” For more, go to “Decoding Neanderthal Genetics.”
MILAN, ITALY—Seeker reports that the remains of a shackled man have been found in a 2,500-year-old Etruscan necropolis made up of otherwise “normal” burials in central Tuscany. The necropolis was located near the seaside settlement of Populonia, noted for iron processing in antiquity. The man, who was between 20 and 30 years old at the time of death, may have been a slave who worked in maritime activities, or in the local iron mines. He was bound with irons on his legs, and he wore a heavy iron collar around his neck. “We found a black spot under the nape, most likely what remained of a wood object which was likely connected to the iron collar,” said Giorgio Baratti of the University of Milan. He thinks the man’s neck and leg shackles were connected with ropes or leather straps. An iron ring found on one of his left fingers may also have been connected to the shackles. Analysis of the bones could reveal more information about the man, including where he had been born. To read in-depth about an Etruscan site, go to “The Tomb of the Silver Hands.”
UPPSALA, SWEDEN—Science Magazine reports that paleogeneticist Morgane Ollivier of the Ecole Normale Supéieure de Lyon, evolutionary geneticist Erik Axelsson of Uppsala University, and their colleagues examined DNA extracted from the bones and teeth of wolves and dogs whose remains were unearthed at Neolithic-era archaeological sites in Eurasia. Dogs are thought to have been domesticated by hunter-gatherers more than 15,000 years ago. The researchers found that as early as 7,000 years ago, at a time when humans were beginning to farm wheat and millet, the dogs had four to 30 copies of a gene involved in the digestion of starch, while wolves usually have just two. “This [expansion] probably constituted an important advantage for dogs feeding on human leftovers,” Ollivier said. He added that the number of copies of the starch gene carried by humans also increased at this time. To read in-depth about dogs and archaeology, go to “More Than Man's Best Friend.”
COPENHAGEN, DENMARK—The International Business Times reports that scientists from the University of Copenhagen tested sediments at archaeological sites in Greenland dating back 4,000 years for DNA clues to what the island's first inhabitants ate. The study suggests that bowhead whales and other large mammals made up much of the diet of the Saqqaq culture. But whale bones have not been found at Saqqaq archaeological sites, probably because pieces of meat and blubber, rather than the entire carcass of the animal, were transported from the shore to the settlement. It had been previously thought that the people of the Thule culture were the first to hunt and eat whales between 600 and 800 years ago. For more on on archaeology in the area, go to “Letter from Norway: The Big Melt.”
ZEALAND, DENMARK—Science Nordic reports that a 1,000-year-old toolbox containing 14 iron tools was discovered at Borgring, a Viking ring fortress, by metal detectorists. “The toolbox is the first direct indication of life that we’ve found around the fortress,” said archaeologist Nanna Holm. The tools are thought to have been kept in a wooden box near the east gate of the fortress, which was damaged by fire. “It looks like the fire was brought under control before it spread, and afterwards they laid two layers of clay inside the gate,” Holm explained. “In each layer we find a fireplace, and we found the toolbox in the youngest layer.” The evidence also suggests that the gate eventually collapsed, burying the toolbox. Such valuable iron was usually melted down and reused, making the tools, including spoon drills, a drawplate for making thin wire, a piece of chain, and a clink nail, a rare discovery. For more, go to “The First Vikings.”
ASWAN, EGYPT—Ahram Online reports that a causeway leading to the three-room tomb of Sarenput I has been found at the Qubbet El-Hawa necropolis by a team of archaeologists from the University of Birmingham and the Egypt Exploration Society. Sarenput I was the provincial governor of Aswan’s Elephantine Island during the Middle Kingdom, in addition to holding other posts in service to King Senusert I of the 12th Dynasty. The causeway, which measures more than 400 feet long, is decorated with engravings. One of the images depicts a group of men pulling a bull and presenting it as an offering to the deceased governor. A pit in the causeway has yielded containers that may have been used as canopic jars. According to Hani Abul Azm, head of the central administration of Upper Egypt, their contents will be studied. To read in-depth about recent excavations in Egypt, go to "The Cult of Amun."
ANNAPOLIS, MARYLAND—A team led by Mark P. Leone of the University of Maryland says that a set of circular-shaped objects unearthed at the site of a former Maryland plantation may have held religious significance to African-Americans, according to a report in The New York Times. One of the objects, which were found in a house, may reflect a cosmogram, or a circle with an X inside of it that was a traditional religious symbols from the BaKongo belief system of West Central Africa. Christian preachers are thought to have repurposed the cosmogram as Ezekiel’s blazing chariot wheel, described in the Old Testament as a wheel inside a wheel, in their efforts to convert enslaved people who originated from West Central Africa. The team members say that this is the first time that these circle images have been found together. “Christianity had not erased traditional African spirit practices,” Leone said. “It had merged with them to form a potent blend that still thrives today.” To read in-depth about archaeology at another Maryland plantation, go to "Letter From Maryland: Belvoir's Legacy."
ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA—The Hindu reports that a rock art site thought to date to the tenth century A.D. has been found near the southeastern coast of India by a team led by Sivakumar Challa of Yogi Vemana University. The researchers had been investigating a megalithic site in the area when they found the artwork. The drawings had been made with white pigment, and depict a woman warrior wearing head gear and shoes, and holding a lance with both hands. She is carrying two daggers, on each side of her waist. A horse stands near her. Other images include circle and floral designs, a parrot, and an elephant. To read more about archaeology in southern India, go to "India's Village of the Dead."
ABERDEEN, SCOTLAND—The Telegraph reports that research by Mark Collard of the University of Aberdeen and Simon Fraser University, Ben Raffield of Simon Fraser University, and Neil Price of Uppsala University supports the idea that young Viking men may have been driven to raid other lands in the pursuit of wives, rather than as part of a battle against the spread of Christianity. They say that social inequality and the rise of polygamy in the Iron Age world meant that there were few women available as potential partners for young, poor men. They explain that by raiding, young men would have been able to accumulate wealth and power quickly, and thus improve their chances of gaining wives. The researchers cite recent research that suggests that Yanomamo tribes in South America practice intervillage raiding in pursuit of wives for polygamous marriages. They also say that the graves of members of Viking raiding parties belonged to young men rather than seasoned veterans. For more, go to “The Vikings in Ireland.”
ARKHANGELSK, RUSSIA—Live Science reports that a team led by Evgeny Ermolov of the Russian Arctic National Park investigated a World War II–era weather station, complete with a bunkhouse, emergency supply depot, and an emergency aircraft landing strip built by the German military on an island in the Barents Sea. The island is usually trapped by snow and ice for much of the year, but this August, the land was clear and the team was able to investigate the site. The last of the German meteorology team members who worked at the station were evacuated by U-boat in 1944, but others had to be airlifted off the island earlier that year after getting ill from eating improperly cooked polar bear meat. “It was quite disastrous—the expedition leader went crazy, and when they were flown out he had to be strapped down to the floor of the aircraft, so he wouldn’t run riot,” commented polar historian William Barr. Ermolov and his team recovered more than 600 artifacts, including army and naval uniforms, fragments of weapons and ammunition, fuel barrels, tents, batteries, crates, smoke bombs, signal flares, books, documents, manuals, and meteorology textbooks. After the war, the Soviet military used the base into the 1950s. To read about another discovery in the Arctic, go to “Franklin’s Last Voyage.”