SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH—Adrian Bell of the University of Utah and his colleagues developed a model of the colonization of remote islands in the Pacific Ocean by adapting an epidemiological model of how diseases spread among people and animals. “We model ocean migrants as ‘infecting’ uninhabited islands,” Bell explained in a press release. The team used the model to analyze some of the different theories of how the Lapita reached the 24 major island groups in the Pacific using dates obtained through archaeological research. Some of the variables include island size, distances from other islands, prevalent wind directions, and the inferred level of social hierarchy among the people living on the island. “So as the model moves forward in time, it will suggest some islands to be colonized first rather than others. How well it matches up with the data will distinguish which model comes out on top,” Bell said. The team found that the migrants “weren’t just drifting around,” but had a strategy for the best way to discover new places, traveling into the wind and moving to big islands that were more easily visible. “Here we have demonstrated how we can go beyond the construction of plausible narratives and ad hoc interpretations of archaeological information in order to develop explicit models of different colonization strategies and rigorously test them against the data,” reads the study, published in American Antiquity. To read about human colonization of Hawaii, see "Inside Kauai's Past."
NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT—An international team of of scientists led by robotics engineers Thomas Feix and Aaron Dollar of Yale University has created a kinematic model of the thumbs and index fingers of living primates and human ancestors based upon measurements of their digits’ segments. This method analyzes the interaction between the thumb and index finger, and suggests that human ancestors may have had precision-grip capabilities comparable to those of modern humans. According to the study, Australopithecus afarensis, which lived between 3.8 and three million years ago, may have had greater dexterity than what was required for cutting with a stone, and may have been able to use other tools not preserved in the archaeological record. “The model reveals that a long thumb or great joint mobility alone does not necessarily yield good precision manipulation,” Feix said in a press release. To read about the evolution of the throwing motion, see "No Changeups on the Savannah."
BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA—Last year, Dana Lepofsky of Simon Fraser University and her team announced that ancient clam gardens in the Pacific Northwest, which range from Alaska to Washington State, produced quadruple the number of butter clams and twice the number of littleneck clams as unmodified clam beaches. Their new study has found that many clam gardens are more than 1,000 years old, and that they were managed in a variety of ways, including replanting of small clams and building rock terrace walls at the low tide line to create conditions that are ideal for clam growth. Beaches were also cleared of rubble that would limit clam habitat. The abundant and sustainable harvests of clams from the gardens would have supported the dense ancient First Nations settlements along the coastline. “We think that many Indigenous peoples worldwide had some kind of sophisticated marine management, but the Pacific Northwest is likely one of the few places in the world where this can be documented. This is because our foreshores are more intact than elsewhere and we can work closely with Indigenous knowledge holders,” Lepofsky said in a press release. To read about Lepofsky's research in-depth, see "The Edible Seascape."
ATAPUERCA, SPAIN—A human jaw recovered from El Mirador Cave has a rare supernumerary tooth that has been examined with Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) by a team of researchers from the Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana I Evolució Social (IPHES), the Universitat Rovira I Virgili (URV), and the Faculty of Dentistry at the Universitat Internacional de Catalunya (UIC). Human dentition is usually composed of three molars in each side of the upper and lower jaw. This jaw, which probably belonged to a 40-year-old man who lived between 4,760 and 4,200 years ago, had a fourth molar in the lower mandible. “In the case of archaeological populations there are very few studied and published examples of supernumerary teeth. Therefore, it is a novelty,” Marina Lozano, an IPHES researcher and a professor at URV, said in a press release. The Neolithic diet of starchy carbohydrates and a lack of dental hygiene increased the occurrence of dental caries among early farmers. These teeth show signs of severe dental wear, decay, abscesses, pulpitis, periodontal disease, tooth-picking marks in an upper molar, and arthritis of the temporomandibular joint. “This diagnosis confirms that oral health from the Neolithic became worse in agriculture and livestock populations,” she explained. To read about another instance of unusual ancient dentition, see "The Case of the Missing Incisors."
NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT—A new study of lake sediment cores in Mexico’s northern Yucatan region and in Guatemala has found that markers of historic droughts in Central America correspond with patterns of disruption in Maya society. “Our work demonstrates that the southern Maya lowlands experienced a more severe drought compared to the north. The south was the center of the Maya population, and their capacity to adapt was limited. The north was already accustomed to fairly dry conditions and did much better. There was actual expansion there after the collapse, but the southern cities never recovered,” Mark Pagani of Yale University said in a press release. The team examined hydrogen and carbon isotopes in leaf waxes from the sediment cores. The hydrogen isotopes provided information on drought, and the carbon isotope signatures provided information on agricultural methods. Peter Douglas of the California Institute of Technology notes that early in the drought period, the Maya adapted their method of farming maize from slash and burn to a more intensive system of agriculture so that their populations continued to grow. “The research makes clear that the ancient Maya were not passive victims of climate change—they adapted in response to drought, but it only worked up to a point,” Douglas added. To read in-depth about ancient Maya civilization, see "The Maya Sense of Time."
CAIRO, EGYPT—Mamdouh El Damaty, Egypt’s Minister of Antiquities, announced that a mastaba, or mud-brick tomb, from the Old Kingdom period had been found in Quesna, which is better known for its Roman period antiquities. “In 2010 a mud-brick monument was located in the north of the site that had beer jars dating to the early Old Kingdom. The shape of this monument suggested that it was a mastaba, but further investigations were needed to fully understand the architecture and its exact date. In the last few days of the 2014 excavation, an extraordinary artifact was found in one of the two burial niches—a seal impression bearing the name of King Khaba within a serekh,” Joanne Rowland of the Free University of Berlin said in a statement released by the Egypt Exploration Society. In Egyptian hieroglyphs, a serekh is the rectangular enclosure that surrounds the text of a royal name. King Khaba ruled during the Third Dynasty for about six years, and this tomb is the first to be found in more than 100 years that can be assigned to his reign. The tiny fragment was found by team member Yassen Hasan Abdallah Omer, who carefully examined every piece of mud removed from the site. To read about another tomb recently unearthed in Egypt, see "Tomb of the Chantress."
BORNHOLM, DENMARK—An enameled bronze brooch has been unearthed near the east coast of the island of Bornholm, located in the Baltic Sea. Shaped like an owl, the brooch, which has large orange eyes and colorful wings, dates to the Iron Age, and would have been used to fasten a man’s cloak. “There are very few of these types of fasteners,” archaeologist Christina Seehusen of Bornholm Museum told The Copenhagen Post. It was probably made along the Roman frontier, in Cologne or another nearby town. “There have been a number of discoveries in graves and settlements on the island that show there was contact with many parts of the world including frequent contact with parts of the Roman Empire,” Seehusen said. To read about another remarkable artifact discovered in Denmark, see "Bronze Age Dagger."
MURSALEVO, BULGARIA—Skeletons of three children thought to have been sacrificed by the Thracians in the sixth century B.C. have been discovered in one of 20 ritual pits at a site in southwest Bulgaria. The pits were uncovered during rescue digs by archaeologists from the National Institute and Museum of Archaeology of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences along the planned route of a new highway. Stones thought to have been used in the sacrificial ritual were also removed from the pit. Other pits contained the remains of food and animal offerings, such as the complete skeleton of a calf that was found with a knife blade. Archaeologists think that the Thracians honored the site because of the early Neolithic city that once stood there. The 8,000-year-old settlement had three parallel major streets divided by smaller, perpendicular streets. Each section formed by the streets held three or four homes built of plant stalks and clay. Artifacts from the homes include ceramic figurines of a mother goddess, tools, a golden earring, a button, and a needle. The city appears to have been deliberately burned, according to Archaeology in Bulgaria. To read about a recent archaeological discovery in Bulgaria, see "Thracian Treasure Chest."
VALÈNCIA, SPAIN—Josep Montesinos of the Asociación RUVID, and Xaverio Ballester of the University of València are gathering information about the Latin spoken in Roman Hispania through the writing found on the molded and stamped ceramic wares kept in the Spanish Royal Academy of History. “Research focuses on the words written on the surface of these everyday ceramic pieces which can provide linguistic data, but also territorial and ethnological information,” Montesinos said in a press release. The pots bear marks and decorations made by their users, and include personal details such as proper names and colloquial phrases. The ceramics “allow us to approach the real language, popular Latin, very different from formal Latin or from that found in obituaries and, therefore, reveal the customs and habits of Roman Hispania,” Montesinos explained. To read about the Roman Empire's rise to dominance, see "Rome's Imperial Port."
YAROSLAVL, RUSSIA—Analysis of a fragment taken from a saber found in a mass grave in the historic trade center of Yaroslavl indicates it is the oldest crucible steel weapon in Eastern Europe. Steel of this kind was first produced in India in the first century A.D., and later in Central Asia, but it was very expensive during the medieval period. The grave, located alongside the Dormition Cathedral, holds the remains of people slaughtered during the invasion of the city by Batu Khan in 1238. “The site contains comprehensive evidence of the atrocity committed that day. We found numerous skeletons of murdered women and children, many household objects like dishes, jewelry, many weapons, and this saber,” Asya Engovatova of the Russian Academy of Sciences said in a press release. The weapon’s handle has been lost, and its blade is bent. Micro-cracks in the blade show that it had been heated to a high temperature, perhaps in order to bend it before it was discarded. Engovatova thinks the blade may have belonged to a wealthy warrior from Batu Khan’s army. To read about another recently discovered sword, see "Viking Trading or Raiding?"
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA—Neanderthals went extinct in most of Europe around 40,000 years ago, some 5,000 years after the arrival of the first modern humans. “The issue of Neanderthal extinction is very complex, and very little is agreed upon,” Anna Goldfield of Boston University said at the annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, reported in Live Science. She thinks that mastery of fire may have given modern humans an advantage over Neanderthals in the struggle for survival. Cooking would have provided modern humans with more calories from the same amount of food, and it kills bacteria, making the food safer to eat. Fires also provide warmth. Goldfield and mathematical biologist Ross Booton of the University of Sheffield used mathematical models to simulate how the populations of modern humans and Neanderthals might have changed if modern humans were using fire more frequently than Neanderthals, and when the two groups were using fire about equally. They also looked at the reindeer population—a food source for both groups. The numbers suggest that if modern humans used fire more often than the Neanderthals, they would have eventually won the competition for resources. Meanwhile, The Huffington Post reports that a study published in the journal Antiquity suggests that Neanderthals living in northern Spain some 50,000 years ago were cooking with chamomile and yarrow, which have anti-microbial and anti-parasitic properties, just because they liked the taste. Chemicals from the herbs and chemicals associated with smoked and cooked meats were found on the Neanderthals’ teeth by a team led by Karen Hardy of the University of Barcelona. Sabrina Krief of the Museum of Natural History in Paris and her colleagues agree that the Neanderthals may have used the herbs as medicine, or even as flavor enhancers, since they have observed chimpanzees in the wild chewing bitter herbs and flavorful soils before and during meat-based meals. “The strong, bitter taste of the leaves may modify the flavor of viscera, muscles, organs, or water. The bitter taste of the cooked plant does not necessarily disappear completely; chamomile, for example, remains bitter when infused,” they wrote. To read more about Neanderthals, see "Should We Clone Neanderthals?"
CAIRO, EGYPT—A team from the Russian Institute of Egyptology at Kom Tuman has uncovered white limestone fragments of the wall that surrounded the Old Kingdom capital of Memphis, which sits at the mouth of the Nile Delta. The 5,200-year-old enclosure wall protected the palaces of the pharaohs and the state administrative buildings. “Unlike royal tombs, pyramids, mortuary, and cult-related temples and any other buildings related to the afterlife, ancient Egyptian royal palaces, administrative offices, houses, and other life-related buildings were often made of mud brick,” Kamal Wahid, director of the central administration of Giza antiquities, told The Cairo Post. The city, now known for its colossal statue of Ramses II, was founded at the end of the fourth millennium B.C. by Menes, the first-dynasty pharaoh who was the first to unify the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt. “A number of pottery-making ovens and bronze tools were also found. The excavations will continue and we will be working to unearth the rest of the wall, as well as any archaeological elements which could help us to know more about this early period of Egyptian history,” added Galina A. Belova, director of the Russian archaeological team. To read about another recent discovery in Egypt, see "Tomb of the Chantress."