A publication of the Archaeological Institute of America
5th Dynasty Tomb Discovered in Egypt
ABUSIR, EGYPT—Miroslav Barta of the Czech Institute of Egyptology and his team have discovered the Old Kingdom tomb of a previously unknown queen named Khentkaus III in a small cemetery to the southeast of King Neferefre’s pyramid complex. She had been buried with four copper tools and 23 limestone vessels. Inscriptions in the tomb list the queen’s titles as “Wife of the King” and “Mother of the King.” Barta thinks she may have been the wife of King Neferefre. “If we can assume that the queen was buried during the time of King Nyuserre (2445 B.C.-2421 B.C.), based on a seal that bears his name that was found on the tomb, we could say that Khentkaus III is the mother of King Menkauhore who was the successor of Nyuserre,” team member Jaromir Krejci told The Luxor Times. To read more about Egyptological discoveries, go to "The Cult of Amun."
Roman Sanitation Practices May Have Spread Parasites
CAMBRIDGE, ENGLAND—Archaeological evidence suggests that Europeans conquered by the Roman Empire experienced a gradual increase in intestinal parasites and ectoparasites, such as lice and fleas, in spite of Roman sanitation technologies. “Modern research has shown that toilets, clean drinking water and removing feces from the streets all decrease risk of infectious disease and parasites. So we might expect the prevalence of fecal oral parasites such as whipworm and roundworm to drop in Roman times—yet we find a gradual increase. The question is why?” Piers Mitchell of Cambridge University asked in a press release. He thinks that the warm communal waters of the bathhouses, which may have been changed infrequently, could have contributed to the spread of parasitic worms. The Romans also used human excrement from the public latrines as a crop fertilizer. And the widespread use of garum, a condiment made from uncooked, fermented fish parts, may have contributed to the increase of fish tapeworm eggs during the Roman period. “It seems likely that while Roman sanitation may not have made people any healthier, they would probably have smelt better,” Mitchell said. To read about the Roman Empire's rise to power, go to "Rome's Imperial Port."
Scientists Recommend Naming New Geological Epoch
LEICESTER, ENGLAND—An international group of scientists known as the Anthropocene Working Group argues the Earth entered a new geological epoch characterized by the spread of novel materials in the mid-twentieth century. These materials are measurable in geological strata and are different from the signals of the Holocene Epoch of the last 11,700 years. During the Holocene, humans gradually built urban settlements and increased food production while using water, mineral, and energy resources. The proposed Anthropocene Epoch, however, is marked by increased consumption and rapid environmental change brought on by a population surge. “Humans have long affected the environment, but recently there has been a rapid global spread of novel materials including aluminum, concrete, and plastics, which are leaving their mark in sediments. Fossil-fuel combustion has dispersed fly ash particles worldwide, pretty well coincident with the peak distribution of the ‘bomb spike’ of radionuclides generated by atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons,” Colin Waters of the British Geological Survey said in a University of Leicester press release. The Anthropocene Working Group will continue to gather evidence to define and characterize this proposed new epoch. To read about the archaeology of the Nuclear Age, go to "Dawn of a Thousand Suns."
Ötzi the Iceman Carried Ulcer-Causing Bacteria
BOLZANO, ITALY—Paleopathologist Albert Zink and microbiologist Frank Maixner of the European Academy in Bozen/Bolzano have identified the presence of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach contents of Ötzi, the frozen human remains discovered in the Alps in 1991. As many as half of people today are infected with Helicobacter pylori, which can cause gastritis or stomach ulcers. Ötzi’s stomach mucosa is no longer present, so scientists did not expect to be able to recover any traces of the bacterium. “We were able to solve the problem once we hit upon the idea of extracting the entire DNA of the stomach contents. After this was successfully done, we were able to tease out the individual Helicobacter sequences and reconstruct a 5,300-year-old Helicobacter pylori genome,” Maixner explained in a press release. And Ötzi’s immune system had reacted to the potentially virulent strain of bacteria. “We showed the presence of marker proteins which we see today in patients infected with Helicobacter,” Maixner added. The genetic makeup of the bacteria has raised more questions, however, and further research is being planned. The study of bacteria living inside the human body may eventually be able to help us understand how humans developed. To read more about Ötzi, go to "Ancient Tattoos."
Interspecies Relations Boosted Modern Human Immunity
LEIPZIG, GERMANY—Studies have shown that one to six percent of modern Eurasian genomes were inherited from ancient humans. Now two independent studies suggest that interbreeding may have given some modern humans an increased ability to ward off infections. “We found that interbreeding with archaic humans, the Neanderthals and Denisovans, has influenced the genetic diversity in present-day genomes at three innate immunity genes belonging to the human Toll-like-receptor family,” Janet Kelso of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology said in a press release. The archaic variants of these genes make modern human cells more reactive to invading bacteria, fungi, and parasites. But this increased sensitivity could also result in allergies. “These, and other, innate immunity genes present higher levels of Neanderthal ancestry than the remainder of the coding genome,” added Lluis Quintana-Murci of the Institut Pasteur and the CNRS in Paris. Kelso explains that Neanderthals had lived in Europe and Western Asia for some 200,000 years before interbreeding with the newly arrived modern humans, who benefited from Neanderthal adaptations to local climate, foods, and pathogens. To read more about our extinct cousins, go to "Should We Clone Neanderthals?"
Did Panamanian Islanders Hunt Dolphins?
PANAMA CITY, PANAMA—Eight percent of the mammal remains found in a 6,000-year-old midden on Pedro González Island, located more than 30 miles from mainland Panama, came from dolphins. People living at the same time in Japan, Mexico, and Chile hunted dolphins, but this is the first time that evidence of systematic dolphin consumption has been found in Central America. “Were the island’s first known inhabitants dolphin hunters or did they merely scavenge beached animals?” asked archaeologist Richard Cooke of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. The excavation has not uncovered evidence of nets or spears, but the researchers have found a dolphin skull with a puncture wound inflicted by a blunt-pointed tool. Cooke and his colleagues argue that the residents of Pedro González Island may have waited for the seasonal arrival of dolphins into the Gulf of Panama in their canoes at the entrance to the u-shaped Don Bernardo Beach, then driven them to shore where they were harvested. “I would argue, though it’s speculative, that the retention of dolphin hunting is probably due to an early circum-Pacific maritime adaptation by humans,” Cooke said in a press release. To read more in-depth about archaeology in the region, go to "Pirates of the Original Panama Canal."
Climate Data Suggests Famine Worsened Black Death
CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS—Volcanic particles discovered in an ice core taken in 2013 from the Colle Gnifetti glacier in the Alps have been chemically matched to the 1875 Askja eruption in Iceland by Matthew Luongo, a junior at Harvard University. This information helped researchers to align the data from the ice core with written records, including information about famine conditions in Europe in the years leading up to the arrival of the Black Death in 1347. “The evidence indicates that the famine was a broader phenomenon, geographically and chronologically,” Alexander More of Harvard’s History Department told The Harvard Gazette. If the famine had lasted decades, the population would have been weak and could explain the Black Death’s high mortality rate—between one-third and one-half of the European population are thought to have died over a period of five years.
Bronze Age Citadel Discovered in Northern Israel
NAHARIYA, ISRAEL—A 3,400-year-old Canaanite fortress that had been destroyed at least four times by fire has been discovered at a construction site in northern Israel. The Bronze Age citadel contained ceramic figurines in human and animal forms, bronze weapons, and imported pottery. The artifacts indicate that there had been trade ties with Cyprus and the rest of the Mediterranean basin, Israel Antiquities Authority archaeologists Nimrod Getzov, Yair Amitsur, and Ron Be’eri told Haaretz. The fires also preserved remains of cereals, legumes, and grape seeds. Other Canaanite sites have yielded vessels bearing wine residues, but it is not clear if these grape seeds were left behind by wine makers. The site will be incorporated into the basement of the new residential structure. To read in-depth about another excavation in northern Israel, go to "Excavating Tel Kedesh."
Diminished Arctic Ice Reveals Lost Whaling Fleet
WASHINGTON, D.C.—A team of archaeologists from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Maritime Heritage Program has found the hulls of two ships and pieces of other ships off the Arctic coast of Alaska, where in September 1871, 33 whaling ships were trapped by pack ice. The whaling captains decided to abandon their ships and transfer the more than 1,200 officers, crew, and families to shore. Seven other whaling ships in open water to the south jettisoned their cargoes and equipment in order to rescue those who had been stranded. The trapped ships were destroyed within weeks. “Earlier research by a number of scholars suggested that some of the ships that were crushed and sunk might still be on the seabed," NOAA archaeologist Brad Barr said in a press release. "But until now, no one had found definitive proof of any of the lost fleet beneath the water. This exploration provides an opportunity to write the last chapter of this important story of American maritime heritage and also bear witness to some of the impacts of a warming climate on the region’s environmental and cultural landscape, including diminishing sea ice and melting permafrost.” To read about a similar discovery, go to "Canada Finds Erebus."
Historic Ship’s Hull Unearthed in Alexandria, Virginia
ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA—City archaeologists and a team from Thunderbird Archaeology have found about one-third of a 50-foot vessel at a construction site in Alexandria, Virginia. The ship is thought to have been scuttled in the late eighteenth century and used for landfill that extended the city’s thriving waterfront into the deep channel of the Potomac River. The archaeologists are using 3-D laser scanning equipment to record the well-preserved, sturdily built hull, which will be dismantled and maintained in a wet environment while researchers continue to study it. According to a press release from the city of Alexandria, this discovery may represent a type of vessel that has not yet been documented through archaeological research. To read about an eighteenth-century ship discovered in Manhattan, go to "The Hidden History of New York's Harbor."